Laparoscopic or minimally invasive or key hole surgery is a specialized technique for performing surgery. Over the last 15 years the use of this technique has expanded into abdominal surgeries. In traditional open surgery the surgeon uses a “large” incision to enter into the abdomen. Laparoscopic surgery uses several 0.5-1cm incisions. Specialized instruments and a special camera system known as a laparoscope are passed through the trocars (access instrument) during the procedure. During the operation the surgeon watches detailed images of the abdomen on the monitor attached to laparoscope. This system allows the surgeon to perform the same operations as traditional surgery but with smaller incisions. However it requires specialized skill and training to perform it.
There are many surgeries that can be performed laparoscopically in skillful hands. It is devided in two categories
Basic laparoscopic surgery- Hernia, gall bladder, appendix
Advanced laparoscopic surgery- Anti-reflux surgery, heller’s cardiomyotomy for achalasia cardia, rectopexy for rectal prolapse, pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis, surgery for Gastro-intestinal cancers ; esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small & large bowel, rectal , anal canal cancer surgeries can be performed very safely with good outcome.
Advantages of laparoscopic surgeries are :
1. Compared to traditional open surgery, patients often experience less pain, faster recovery, and better cosmetic results due to small incisions.
2. Reduced bleeding, which reduces the chance of needing a blood transfusion.
3. Less pain, leading to less pain medication needed.
4. Although procedure times are usually slightly longer, a hospital stay is less, and often with the same day discharge which leads to a faster return to everyday living.