Surgery for Familial polyposis coli:

One of the commonest diseases of the colon and rectum, cancer can affect any part of the large bowel. Surgical removal of the cancer is the primary treatment modality. Rectal cancers will require complete removal of the rectal apparatus with a permanent end colostomy. In some of the rectal cancers, the anal sphincter mechanism can be preserved by using surgical staplers. Cancers of the colon will require removal of a part of the colon called Right or Left hemicolectomy

Diverticulitis is a condition usually seen in the old where areas of weakness develop in the sigmoid and ascending colon resulting in localized ballooning of colonic mucosa called diverticulosis. Infection and inflammation of these diverticula result in diverticulitis. This condition might require surgery if it presents with colonic obstruction , colo-vesical fistula or uncontrollable bleeding. Surgery will be in the form of resecting the involved segment and anastomosis.

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the large bowel, which can vary in severity. It usually starts from the rectum and ascends towards the caecum. Most patients in India have a milder form of ulcerative colitis localized to the left colon and subsiding with oral medication.

An uncommon hereditary disease of the colon presenting with multiple polyps all over the colon. This condition has a high malignant potential hence will require complete removal of the colon and rectum. Bowel continuity is restored by performing an ileoanal pouch.

Some of these patients present to the emergency ward with severe symptoms requiring hospitalization and sometimes surgery for conditions like ‘toxic megacolon’, massive lower GI bleeding, etc. Surgery will involve total colectomy with ileostomy.